Instructions for authors

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  • April 2023

Table of Contents

1. General

Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (TRD) gives priority to high-quality academic experimental or clinical research that will contribute to the development of knowledge of the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. Manuscripts types include original articles, reviews, images of interest, editorials, and letters to the editor. The journal is issued on the first day of the January, April, July, and October.

2. Ethical guidelines for research and publication

All work must conform to the ethical guidelines specified on Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (
Research involving human subjects must conform to the ethical guidelines specified by the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (revised 2013; It is recommended that any research dealing with a clinical trial be registered with a primary national clinical trial registration site such as, or other sites accredited by the WHO or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The relevant studies must have been approved by the Institutional Ethics Board or Institutional Review Board of each institution. It should also be noted, where applicable, that study subjects provided written informed consent. In cases of animal experimental studies, the experimental procedure must conform to the guidelines of the Institutional Ethics Board or those specified on the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The editorial board reserves the right to require authors to submit copies of informed consent forms and a letter of the approval signed by the Institutional Ethics Board, if applicable.

3. Disclosure of conflict of interest

All authors are required to upload disclosure forms when their manuscript is submitted to the Journal. Please upload these forms along with your other manuscript files, choosing File Designation: "Disclosure of Financial Interest Form(S)." Disclosure form shall be same with ICMJE Uniform Disclosure Form for Potential Conflicts of Interest ( When a manuscript is accepted for publication, TRD will determine the part(s) of an author's disclosure that will be published with the manuscript.

4. Authorship

In accordance with the ICMJE recommendations defining the role of authors, authorship should be based on all four of the following criteria. Please see the ICMJE Recommendations ( for more information.

  • 1) Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
  • 2) Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND
  • 3) Final approval of the version to be published; AND
  • 4) Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

5. Plagiarism and duplicate publication

The submitted manuscript should be original and should not either had been published or submitted to other scientific journals at the same time. In addition, part or all of the accepted manuscript should not be duplicated in other scientific journals without the permission of the editorial committee. The submitted manuscript will be evaluated for possible plagiarism or duplicated publication by CrossCheck upon arrival. If plagiarism or duplicate publications related to the paper of this journal are detected, these issues will be announced in the journal, the institute of the authors will be informed and penalties will be imposed on the authors. It is mandatory for authors to resolve any copyright issues when citing a figure or table from other journals which are not open access.
With regard to all matters associated with research ethics, such as ethical guidelines and plagiarism/duplicate publication/scientific misconduct, the review and processing procedures are based on 'Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals' ( and 'Guidelines on Good Publication' (

6. Data sharing statement

For clinical trials, authors are required to provide a Data Sharing Statement if data will be shared or not. The Data Sharing Statement form can be downloaded here. The authors are required to fill in a Data Sharing Statement form. Data Sharing Statement should be submitted along with the manuscript. Authors will be asked how the data will be available and if there will be any restrictions on the use. Authors also have the option to explain why data may not be shared. The Data Sharing Statement will be published online alongside the article.

7. Submission of manuscripts

All manuscripts must be submitted at the TRD e-submission website, Only manuscripts submitted through the web site will be considered for review.

8. Review process

The editorial office checks the paper’s composition and arrangement against the journal’s Author Guidelines to make sure it includes the required sections and stylizations. The editor-in-chief and deputy editors check that the paper is appropriate for the journal and is sufficiently original and interesting. Then, the deputy editors and associate editors handle the peer review process. At this stage, the paper may be rejected without being reviewed any further.

The selected manuscripts are reviewed by single-blind peer review. The handling editors send invitations to individuals he or she believes would be appropriate reviewers. As responses are received, further invitations are issued, if necessary, until the required number of acceptances is obtained – minimum number of peer-reviewers is two.

Upon completion of the review, notification of acceptance or rejection will be sent to the corresponding author by e-mail. If a revised version is requested, it should be returned no later than 90 days after notification.

9. Manuscript preparation

All materials must be written in clear, appropriate English. The manuscript must be written in 12-point font with double-line spacing and at least 2.5-cm margins on A4 size paper using Microsoft Word.
All pages should be numbered consecutively starting with the title page as page 1. Line numbers (i.e., 1, 2, 3 etc.) should be displayed in the left-hand margin of the manuscript file. Line numbering can be added from the File/Page Setup menu of word processing programs and should be continuous throughout the manuscript file. Do not restart numbering from each page.

A. Original Articles

The total length should not exceed 5,000 words (excluding the abstract, references, and table/figure legends). The total number of tables and figures should be fewer than 10.
Manuscripts should begin with the title page followed by an Abstract and Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conflicts of Interest, Acknowledgements, References (up to 40 references), Tables and/or Figures.
Acronyms should be avoided where possible. Where a complex or cumbersome term or phrase is repeatedly used, however, it should be abbreviated, preferably using standard abbreviations. The abbreviation should be appear in parentheses following the first use of the term or phrase and can then be used in the remainder of the text.
Human names, regional names and other proper nouns should be used in their original form. Arabic numerals should be used. Laboratory measurements should be expressed in SI (Standard International) units. A single space is usually required between the numeral and the unit; no space is inserted for % and ℃.

  • ▪ Title page
  • The title page should contain the following information: (1) title (less than 150 characters, including spaces); (2) author list (first name, middle name, and last name); (3) name of the institutions at which the work was performed; (4) name, address, and e-mail address of the corresponding author; and (5) running title (less than 50 characters, including spaces).
  • ▪ Author Contributions
  • What authors have done for the study should be described in this title page. To qualify for authorship, all contributors must meet at least one of the seven core contributions by CRediT (conceptualization, methodology, software, validation, formal analysis, investigation, data curation), as well as at least one of the writing contributions (original draft preparation, review and editing). Authors may also satisfy the other remaining contributions; however, these alone will not qualify them for authorship.
    Contributions will be published with the final article, and they should accurately reflect contributions to the work. The submitting author is responsible for completing this information at submission, and it is expected that all authors will have reviewed, discussed, and agreed to their individual contributions ahead of this time.
    • • Examples of authors' contributions are as followings:
    • Conceptualization: Hong GD (for Gil Dong Hong)
    • Methodology: Kim Y, Kim GD (for Younghee Kim and Gil-Dong Kim)
    • Formal analysis: Kim CS (for Chul-Soo Kim)
    • Data curation: ...
    • Software: ...
    • Validation: ...
    • Investigation: ...
    • Writing - original draft preparation: ...
    • Writing - review and editing: ...
    • Approval of final manuscript: all authors.
  • ▪ Abstract and Keywords
  • A structured abstract of up to 250 words should be provided, containing categories such as Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. The objectives, observations, and main results should be provided.
    Three to ten keywords, reflecting the contents of the manuscript, should be included. The first character of each word should be in upper case.
  • ▪ Introduction
  • Relevant background information should be briefly set out and the objectives of the study should be clearly and concisely stated.
  • ▪ Materials and Methods
  • This section should be detailed, and should be presented in a structured format, including study plan, materials and methods used. Statistical methods used for data analysis should be provided. Research involving human participants, human material, or human data, must have been performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and must have been approved by an appropriate ethics committee. A statement of ethics approval, including the name of the ethics committee and the reference number, must appear in the subsection titled as Ethics approval.
    For equipment and reagents, the manufacturer, city and country should be provided in parentheses.
    Ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors), and, unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex and gender. If the study was done involving an exclusive population, for example in only one sex, authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity and justify their relevance.
  • ▪ Results
  • A detailed description of the study results should be arranged in a logical manner. In the case of experimental studies, the bulk of the data should be presented in figures and tables. The contents of figures and tables should not be repeated in the main text. However, the main findings should be presented in the main text, with emphasis on the important trends, statistical significance and key points.
  • ▪ Discussion
  • The significance and implications of novel and important findings should be clearly and concisely presented, without unnecessary duplication of results. Based on this argument, plausible hypotheses could be proposed if warranted. Conclusions should refer to the study objectives.
  • ▪ Conflicts of Interest
  • Any potential conflicts of interest must be disclosed in this section. If there are no potential financial conflicts of interest, the following statement should be added: "No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported."
  • ▪ Acknowledgements
  • Co-workers and others who contributed significantly to the current study, but were not co-authors, should be mentioned in the acknowledgements.
  • ▪ Funding
  • If there is any funding resource, please describe it and its role. If not applicable, also denote that.
  • ▪ References
  • References should be ordered according to order of appearance in the text, using Vancouver style. Journal abbreviations should follow Index Medicus. Unpublished data should preferably not be cite d. Where this is unavoidable, however, the source should be placed in parentheses in the main text and such expressions as “personal opinion exchange” or “unpublished data” should be used.
  • • The citation superscript style is as follows:
    Lee1 is --. -- 2,3-5. -- does1,2,
  • • Style for reference list:
  • 1) Journal citations
  • Drazen JM, Israel E, Boushey HA, Chinchilli VM, Fahy JV, Fish JE, et al. Comparison of regularly scheduled with as-needed use of albuterol in mild asthma. N Engl J Med 1996;335:841-7.
  • Alam N, Oskam E, Stassen PM, Exter PV, van de Ven PM, Haak HR, et al. Prehospital antibiotics in the ambulance for sepsis: a multicentre, open label, randomised trial. Lancet Respir Med 2017 Nov 28 [Epub].
  • All co-authors should be listed unless there are more than seven authors, in which case the first six are listed, followed by “et al.”.
  • 2) Whole books
  • The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. Respiratory diseases. 1st ed. Seoul: Koon Ja Publishing, Inc.; 2004.
  • Light RW. Pleural diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.
  • 3) Book chapters
  • Ryu SH. Pulmonary vascular diseases. In: Han YC editor. Clinical pulmonology. Seoul: Ilchokak; 1990. p. 252-8.
  • McFadden ER Jr. Chapter 236. Asthma. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Co, Inc.; 2005. p. 1508-16.
  • 4) Electronic references
  • World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2015. WHO/HTM/TB/2015.22 [Internet]. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2015 [cited 2015 Oct 30]. Available from:
  • 5) Other types of literature should be formatted are based on ‘Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers’.
  • ▪ Tables
  • Tables should be concise. Use horizontal lines only. Number tables in the order in which they are mentioned in the main text, and refer to them in the text as follows:
  • --- is represented (Table 1). Table 2 represents ---
  • Place the title above the table, using sentence case. Below each table, provide a key to abbreviations and additional explanations if needed. Table footnotes should use these symbols: *, †, ‡, §,∥, ¶, **, †† and ‡‡.
  • BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; ICU: intensive care unit;
  • NS: not significant.
  • *p<0.001. †p<0.05.
  • Tables and legends should provide enough detail that the study data can be understood without reference to the main text.
  • ▪ Figures
  • Figures include graphs, line drawings and photographs. All figures in JPG (JPEG) or TIF (TIFF) format should be submitted separately from the main manuscript. Images should be clear, with resolution exceeding 300 dpi. Each figure should be accompanied by a number. It should be possible for readers to understand the figures without reference to the text. Number the figures in the order in which they are mentioned in the main text, and refer to them in the text as follows:
  • --- is shown (Figure 1). Figure 2 shows ---
  • If any images were not generated by the authors, this should be stated and the source provided. The magnification ratios should not be written for the photos taken via light microscopy. However, the magnification ratios and the names of the special staining methods, and the magnification ratios of the photomicrographs of electron microscopy should be briefly noted .
  • ▪ Graphic Abstract
  • A graphical abstract can be submitted. The graphical abstract should clearly represent the topic of the article in a pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Professional illustration service will be provided after the acceptance.

B. Review Articles

Review articles are generally prepared in the same format as original articles, but the details of manuscript format may be flexible according to the contents. They are organized as follows: title page, abstract and keywords, introduction, body text, conclusion, conflict of interests, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure legends. There should be an unstructured abstract equal to or less than 250 words. The length of the text excluding references, tables, and figures should not exceed 5,000 words, with up to 100 references.
A Review article should be invited by the Editor of TRD. Uninvited review may not be approved for the submission. Please contact the editorial office if you plan to submit an uninvited review.

C. Images of Interest

Original, high-quality images are considered for publication (subject to editing and abridgment). There should be no more than two figures and five authors and they should not exceed 300 words in total, with up to 10 references. An abstract is not required.

D. Editorials

Editorials are invited by the Editor-in-Chief and should be commentaries on original articles published in the same issue of the Journal. Editorials should not exceed 1,000 words (excluding references, tables, and figures) and contain no more than 15 references. An abstract is not required.

E. Letters to the Editor

Letter to the Editor can be published through review and approval by the editors when its scientific quality is acceptable and space in the TRD is available. A Letter to the Editor should be concise and no longer than 1,000 words. It should have a title, distinct from the title of the referenced article, an unstructured main content, and a list of references which should be no more than 10. Only one table or figure would be accepted. An abstract is not required.

10. Reporting Checklist

Authors are encouraged to prepare original articles according to the EQUATOR research reporting guidelines, as listed below.

Study Type Guideline
Randomized controlled trial CONSORT (CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials)
Nonrandomized design TREND (Transparent Reporting of Evaluations with Nonrandomized Designs)
Observational studies in Epidemiology STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology)
Diagnostic accuracy study STARD (STAndards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies)
Systematic review or meta-analysis PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)
Animal research ARRIVE Guidelines
Clinical practice guideline RIGHT Guidelines
Prediction Model Development and Validation TRIPOD Guidelines

11. Article Processing Charge

The charge for publication is 3,500 KRW per page for Review Article, Original Articles, and Images of Interest. Editorials, Letters to the Editor/Author Replies, and Invited Review Articles are not subject to article processing charges.

A charge of 10,000 KRW per color figure will apply. And authors will be charged an additional fee for color prints or reprints. The charge is 138,000 KRW for a single page in color print and 276,000 KRW for two or more pages in color print. Offprints may be purchased if ordered at the proof stage. The offprint charge is 300 KRW per offprint, 5,000 KRW for domestic shipping, and 70,000 KRW for overseas shipping.

  • Article processing charge is waived for foreign authors but color pages are charged to the authors.
  •   - Review Article, Original Articles, and Images of Interest: 3,500 KRW per page
  •   - Color figures: 10,000 KRW per color figure
  •   - Color prints: 138,000 KRW (a single page in color print), 276,000 KRW (two or more pages)
  •   - Offprints: 300 KRW per offprint, 5,000 KRW for domestic shipping, 70,000 KRW for overseas shipping

12. Open access

Open access policy

Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases is an open access journal. Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium except commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial purposes, the process of permission request to the Editorial Office of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases is mandatory. This is in accordance with the Budapest Open Access Initiative definition of open access.
It also follows the open access policy of PubMed Central at United States National Library of Medicine (
All the content of the journal is available immediately upon publication without embargo period.

Archiving policy

Full text of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases has been archived in PubMed Central (PMC)/Europe PMC/PMC Canada ( from the Volume 72, Number 3, 2012.

Deposit policy (Self-archiving policy) according to Sherpa/Romeo (

Author cannot archive pre-print (i.e. pre-refereeing). Author can archive post-print (i.e. final draft post-refereeing). Author can archive publisher's version/PDF.

Detailed description of use of articles of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

  • □  Reader Benefit: Publisher applies the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial license to works it publishes & allows free immediate access to, and unrestricted reuse of, original works of all types for non-commercial purpose.
  • □  Reuse Benefit: Publisher applies the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial license to works it publishes & allows free immediate access to, and unrestricted reuse of, original works of all types for non-commercial purpose.
  • □  Copyrights: Publisher applies the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial license to works it publishes. Under this license, although publisher retains ownership of the copyright for content, it allows anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content for non-commercial purpose.
  • □  Author Posting Benefit: Publisher applies the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial license to works it publishes. Under this license, although publisher retains ownership of the copyright for content, it allows anyone including author to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute and/or copy the content for non-commercial purpose.
  • □  Automatic Posting: Publisher immediately deposits the accepted articles in PubMed Central ( and the journal homepage ( upon publication.
  • □  Machine Readability: The journal articles can be accessed programmatically through PubMed Central, or Europe PMC’s RESTful Web Service ( For inquiries, please contact

13. Copyrights

Representing all authors, corresponding author needs to sign a copyright transfer form electronically at the time of submission. A copyright transfer form is available at the TRD e-submission website,

14. Contact information

  • The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
  • 101-605 58, Banpodaero, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06652, South Korea
  • Phone: +82-2-575-3825, +82-2-576-5347
  • Fax: +82-2-572-6683
  • E-mail:
  • Website:

Tuberculosis and
Respiratory Diseases

Print ISSN: 1738-3536
Online ISSN: 2005-6184

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Editorial Office
101-605, 58, Banpo-daero, Seocho-gu (Seocho-dong, Seocho Art-Xi), Seoul 06652, Korea
Tel: +82-2-575-3825, +82-2-576-5347    Fax: +82-2-572-6683    E-mail:                

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