Original Article
A Pilot Randomized Trial of As-Needed Budesonide-Formoterol for Stepping Down Controller Treatment in Moderate Asthma with Complete Remission
Narongwit Nakwan, Thidarat Ruklerd, Pattarawadee Taptawee
Tuberc Respir Dis. 2022;85(3):227-236.   Published online May 30, 2022
Background: The use of low-dose inhaled corticosteroid-formoterol as reliever monotherapy has recently been recommended in the asthma treatment guidelines. However, the efficacy of this treatment strategy has not yet been determined during the stepping-down period in moderate asthma. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of reducing treatment to as-needed budesonide-formoterol (BFM) in moderate asthma with complete remission. Methods: We randomly...
Original Article
COPD, Environmental and Occupational Lung Disease
Effects of Antioxidant on Oxidative Stress and Autophagy in Bronchial Epithelial Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter and Cigarette Smoke Extract
Jung Hur, Chin Kook Rhee, Yong Suk Jo
Tuberc Respir Dis. 2022;85(3):237-248.   Published online March 23, 2022
Background: We evaluated the effect of particulate matter (PM) and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on bronchial epithelial cell survival, as well as oxidative stress and autophagy levels. Moreover, we aimed to assess the effect of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the adverse effects of PM and CSE exposure. Methods: Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells) were exposed to urban PM...
Original Article
Critical Care Medicine
Clinical Experiences of High-Risk Pulmonary Thromboembolism Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Single Institution
Joonyong Jang, So-My Koo, Ki-Up Kim, et al.
Tuberc Respir Dis. 2022;85(3):249-255.   Published online May 30, 2022
Background: The main cause of death in pulmonary embolism (PE) is right-heart failure due to acute pressure overload. In this sense, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) might be useful in maintaining hemodynamic stability and improving organ perfusion. Some previous studies have reported ECMO as a bridge to reperfusion therapy of PE. However, little is known about the patients that benefit from...
Original Article
Susceptibility of β-Lactam Antibiotics and Genetic Mutation of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Korea
Sanghee Park, Jihee Jung, Jiyeon Kim, et al.
Tuberc Respir Dis. 2022;85(3):256-263.   Published online May 19, 2022
Background Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is resistant to the β-lactam antibiotics due to a non-classical transpeptidase in the cell wall with β-lactamase activity. A recent study showed that meropenem combined with a β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate, was effective in MDR and XDR tuberculosis (TB). However, clavulanate can only be used in drugs containing amoxicillin in Korea. In this study, we investigated the...
Original Article
A Rapid Assessing Method of Drug Susceptibility Using Flow Cytometry for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates Resistant to Isoniazid, Rifampin, and Ethambutol
Sun-Kyoung Lee, Seung-Hun Baek, Min-Sun Hong, et al.
Tuberc Respir Dis. 2022;85(3):264-272.   Published online February 23, 2022
Background: The current conventional drug susceptibility test (DST) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) takes several weeks of incubation to obtain results. As a rapid method, molecular DST requires only a few days to get the results but does not fully cover the phenotypic resistance. A new rapid method based on the ability of viable Mtb bacilli to hydrolyze fluorescein diacetate to...
Respiratory Reviews in Asthma 2022
Ji Hye Lee, Jin-young Kim, Jae Sung Choi, Ju Ock Na
Received June 20, 2022   Accepted August 10, 2022   Published online August 16, 2022   
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2022.0097    [Epub ahead of print]
Letters to the Editor
Benefits of Early Systemic Corticosteroid in Clinical Deterioration of Post–COVID-19 Interstitial Lung Disease
Tai Joon An, Ye Jin Lee, Ji Eun Park, Eung Gu Lee, Youlim Kim, Sung-Yoon Kang, Hyonsoo Joo, Joon Young Choi
Received May 9, 2022   Accepted August 6, 2022   Published online August 11, 2022   
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2022.0072    [Epub ahead of print]
Long-Term Outcome of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Review
Yong Suk Jo
Received May 11, 2022   Accepted July 6, 2022   Published online July 13, 2022   
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2022.0074    [Epub ahead of print]
Letters to the Editor
Pulmonary Embolism and Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a Young Male Patient after mRNA-1273 (Moderna) Immunization: A Case Report
Eui Young Ahn, Hayoung Choi, Yun Su Sim, Tae Rim Shin, Taeehee Kim
Received May 7, 2022   Accepted July 6, 2022   Published online July 13, 2022   
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2022.0050    [Epub ahead of print]
Original Articles
Cardiac Dysfunction Is Not Associated with Increased Reintubation Rate in Patients Treated with Post-extubation High-Flow Nasal Cannula
Jae Kyeom Sim, Juwhan Choi, Jee Youn Oh, Kyung Hoon Min, Gyu Young Hur, Sung Yong Lee, Jae Jeong Shim, Young Seok Lee
Received March 30, 2022   Accepted July 6, 2022   Published online July 13, 2022   
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2022.0040    [Epub ahead of print]
Barthel’s Index: A Better Predictor for COVID-19 Mortality Than Comorbidities
João Cordeiro da Costa, Maria Conceição Manso, Susana Gregório, Márcia Leite, João Moreira Pinto
Received January 21, 2022   Accepted June 13, 2022   Published online June 23, 2022   
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2022.0006    [Epub ahead of print]
Post–Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pulmonary Fibrosis: Wait or Needs Intervention
Hee-Young Yoon, Soo-Taek Uh
Received April 22, 2022   Accepted June 15, 2022   Published online June 20, 2022   
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4046/trd.2022.0053    [Epub ahead of print]

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