Tuberc Respir Dis > Volume 46(5); 1999 > Article
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 1999;46(5):674-684.
DOI:    Published online May 1, 1999.
The Clinical Characteristics of Lung Cancer in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Joohun Park, Jin Seong Lee, Koun Sik Song, Tae Sun Shim, Chae Man Lim, Younsuck Koh, Sang Do Lee, Woo Sung Kim, Won Dong Kim, Dong Soon Kim
1Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
It has been generally known that the incidence of lung cancer is higher in the patients with idopathic pumonary fibrosis (IPF) than those in general population the reported incidences was variable from 4.8 to 43.2%. There were controversies on the most frequent cell type (squamous cell carcinoma vs. adenocarcinoma) and no study was done about the real concordance of cancer and the fibrotic lesion. And the pulmonary fibrosis may influence not only the development of cancer but also the treatment and prognosis of the cancer, but there was no report on that point. METHOD: Total 63 patients (66.8 ? 7.8 year, M:F=61:2) were diagnosed as IPF combined with lung cancer(IPF-CA) at Asan Medical Center. A retrospective analysis was done about the risk factors of the lung cancer, pulmonary function test, the site of cancer(especially the relationship of the cancer with the fibrotic lesion), the histologic types, and the stage of cancer. The histologic types were compared with these of 2,660 patients with lung cancer who were diagnosed at the same institute for the same period. The effect of IPF on the treatment of the cancer was evaluated with the survival time after the detection of lung cancer. RESULTS: The lung cancer was found in 63(22.9%) out of 281 patients with IPF. But in most of them(45 patients), lung cancer was detected at the same time with IPF and only in 18 patients, the cancer was diagnosed during the follow-up (25.2+/-17.7 months) of IPF. So in our study, 6.7% of patients with IPF developed lung cancer during the course of the disease. The age (66.8+/-7.84 vs. 63.4+/-11.1 years), percentage of smoker (88.9 vs. 67.2%), and the male gender (96.8 vs. 67.6%) were significantly higher in IPF-CA compared with lone IPF (p<0.05). The odds ratio of smoking was 4.7 compared with non smoking IPF controls. The lung cancer was located more frequently in the upper lobe and 55.5% was in the periphery of lung. The cancer was developed in the fibrotic lesion in 23 patients (35.9%), and in the majority of the patients, the cancer was separated from the fibrosis. The cell type of the lung cancer in IPF-CA was squamous cell carcinoma 34.9%, adenocarcinoma 30.2%, small cell carcinoma 19.0%, large cell undifferenciated carcinoma 6.3%, and others 9.5%. No significant difference in the distribution of histologic type of the lung cancer was found between IPF-CA and lone lung cancer. There was no significant difference in demographic features, cell types, location and the stage of the cancer between the group with concurrent IPF-CA and the group with cancer diagnosed during the follow up of IPF. There was a tendency (but statistically not significant : p=0.081) of higher incidence of adenocarcinoma among the cancers developed in the fibrotic area (43.5%) (F-CA) than in the cancers in non-fibrotic area (22.5%) (NF-CA). The prognosis of the patients with F-CA was poor (median survival : 4 months) compared with the patients with NF-CA (7 months, p=0.013), partly because the prevalence of severe IPF (the extent of fibrosis in HRCT ?50%) was higher in F-CA group. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the lung cancer in the patients with IPF has similar features to the ordinary lung cancer.
Key Words: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Lung cancer, Smoking, Histologic type

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