Tuberc Respir Dis > Volume 42(4); 1995 > Article
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 1995;42(4):535-547.
DOI:    Published online August 1, 1995.
Clinical Aspects of Bacteremia in Medical and Surgical Intensive Care Units.
Eun Ok Kim, Chae Man Lim, Jae Kyoon Lee, Sung Jae Mung, Sang Do Lee, Younsuck Koh, Woo Sung Kim, Dong Soon Kim, Won Dong Kim, Pyung Hwan Park, Jong Moo Choi, Chik Hyun Pai
1Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Anesthesiology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Korea.
3Department of Clinical Pathology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Korea.
Intensive care units(ICUs) probably represent the single largest identifiable source of infection within the hospital. Although there are several studies on ICU infections in respect to their bacteriology or mortality rate for individual types of ICU, few studies have compared ICU infections between different types of ICU. The aim of this study was to identify clinical differences in bacteremia between medical ICU(MICU) and surgical ICU(SICU) patients. METHODS: 256 patients with bacteremia were retrospectively evaluated. Medical records were reviewed to obtain the clinical and bacteriologic informations. RESULTS: 1) The mean age of the patients with bacteremia of MICU(58.6+/-17.2 yr) was greater than that of all MICU patients(54.3+/-17.1 yr)(p<0.01), but there was no significant difference in SICU patients(patients with bacteremia of SICU: 56.3 +/-18.6 yr, all SICU patients: 62.0+/-16.8)(p>0.05). ICU stay was longer(MICU patients: 23.4 +/-40.8 day, SICU patients: 30.3 +/-26.8 day) than the mean stay of all patients(6.8+/-15.5 day)(p<0.05, respectively). Bacteremia of both ICU patients developed past the average day of ICU stay(all MICU patients: 7.9 day, all SICU patients: 6.0 day, MICU bacteremia: 19th day, SICU bacteremia: 17th day of ICU stay)(p<0.05, respectively). 2) There were no significant differences in mean age, sex, and length of stay of both ICU patients with bacteremia. 3) Use of antibiotics or steroid, use of percutaneous devices and invasive procedures before development of bacteremia were more frequent in SICU patients than in MICU patients(prior antibiotics use: MICU 45%, SICU 63%, p<0.05; steroid use: MICU 14%, SICU 36%, p<0.01; use of percutaneous devices: MICU 19%, SICU 39%, p<0.01; invasive procedures: MICU 19%, SICU 61%, p<0.01). 4) The prevalence of community acquired infections was significantly higher in MICU patients than in SICU patients(MICU 42%, SICU 9%)(p<0.01), whereas SICU patients showed higher prevalence of ICU-acquired infection than MICU patients(MICU 48%, SICU 78%)(p<0.01). 5) There were no differences in causative organisms, primary sites of infection and time interval to bacteremia between both ICUs. 6) There were no significant differences in outcome according to pathogenic organisms or primary sites of infection. 7) The mortality rate was higher in patients with bacteremia than without bacteremia(MICU mortality rate: patients with bacteremia 72.5%, patients without bacteremia 36.0%, p<0.01; SICU mortality rate: patients with bacteremia 40.3%, patients without bacteremia 8.5%, p<0.05), and the mortality rate of MICU bacteremia was significantly higher compared with that of SICU bacteremia(MICU 72.5%, SICU 40.3%)(p<0.01). CONCLUSION: ICU patients with bacteremia stayed longer before the development of bacteremia, and showed higher mortality than the overall ICU population. The incidence of bacteremia was higher in MICU patients than SICU patients. MICU patients with bacteremia showed higher prevalence of liver diseases and acute respiratory failure, community-acquired bacteremia and greater mortality rate than SICU patients with bacteremia. SICU patients with bacteremia, on the other hand, showed higher prevalence of trauma, prior use of immunosuppressive agents, invasive procedures, and ICU-acquired bacteremia, and lower mortality rate than MICU patients with bacteremia.
Key Words: Bacteremia, Intensive care unit

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