Tuberc Respir Dis > Accepted Articles
DOI:    [Accepted]
Published online January 3, 2023.
Association among lifestyle and risk factors with SARS-CoV-2 infection
Yi Ko1, Zi-Ni Ngai2, Rhun-Yian Koh3, Soi-Moi Chye3
1Blackpool Victoria Hospital, Blackpool FY3 8NR, United Kingdom
2School of Health Science, International Medical University, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3Division of Applied Biomedical Science and Biotechnology, School of Health Science, International Medical University, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Correspondence:  Soi-Moi Chye, Tel: +60-3-27317220, Fax: +06-3-86567229, 
Received: 16 December 2022   • Revised: 22 December 2022   • Accepted: 25 December 2022
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a major health burden worldwide, with over 600 million confirmed cases and 6 million deaths on 15 December 2022. Although the acute phase of COVID-19 management has been established, the long-term clinical course and complications due to the relatively short outbreak remain to be assessed. The current COVID-19 pandemic is causing significant morbidity and mortality around the world. Interestingly, epidemiological studies have shown that fatality rates vary considerably across different countries, and men and elderly patients are at higher risk of developing severe diseases. There is increasing evidence that COVID-19 infection causes neurological deficits in a substantial proportion of patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Furthermore, lack of physical activity and smoking are associated with SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. However, why some populations, lack of physical activity, smoking, etc are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and what is the mechanism involved? Thus, in this review article, we summarize epidemiological evidence related to risk factors and lifestyle that affect COVID-19 severity and the mechanism involved. These risk factors or lifestyle intervention includes smoking, cardiovascular health, obesity, exercise, environmental pollution, psychosocial social stress and diet.
Key Words: COVID-19, lifestyle intervention, risk factors
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